Abbreviations and Symbols in Footnotes

One of the things that makes research fun and interesting for me is examining footnotes of the sources I come across. The reason is I never know what information is there to be discovered. It could be a heretofore unknown primary source document, or an article which supports the argument that my piece is trying to make. It is for that reason I do not use abbreviations, citation symbols, or obscure terminology in my footnotes. Additionally, I define  terms used to provide a common frame of reference.

In my research of the Capital Riot that occurred on January 6, 2021, I have found to my joy and irritation many footnotes which include abbreviations and citation symbols such as in the image below.

Footnotes from the House Managers brief in the Senate Trial of Trump

In footnotes 175 and 176 the words United States Constitution are abbreviated as are the words Article, Section and Clause. Now, I know that I could be accused of nitpicking, and the House Managers were aware that the audience for their brief would understand the abbreviations; but it would not have taken up that much more time or space provided a full and complete footnote at least at 175 for the general public. As a historian, I am familiar with the abbreviations and the symbol (§) for section. But most people are not, even most undergraduates.

Capital Riot

For several weeks I have been processing the events of January 6, 2021, in an effort to understand what happened. Not necessarily why it happened because that will take more time. I have been reluctant to post anything; fact, or opinion about the riot because it might offend some of my friends. Nevertheless, I find it necessary to express my views and sift through the facts. I do not know how long it will take or where this process will lead. I find it needs to be done, for nothing like it has ever happened in the history of the United States of America since its founding. So, I shall take the risk of offending some of my friends.

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SSA Phone Scam

Today’s discussion is about more phone scams. Today it’s the Social Security Administration. I received a call from the scammers, stating that my Social Security Number had been suspended. As I have said before I love phone scams. So I eagerly pressed one to speak to a representative told them my problem. And was promptly hung up on. Social Security will usually contact people buy mail. Before any phone conversation takes place. They will not call you. Most of the time, from your area code. And most of the time. You will know the call is coming beforehand. Important things to remember during one of these calls: One, do not give them any information. Especially not your Social Security Number. Two, report any fraudulent activity to the Social Security Administration, Office of the Inspector General. Three, the easiest way to handle one of these phone calls is just hang up. The Social Security Administration will never threaten anyone. I have been dealing with them for years, and they go out of their way to work with people.

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Amazon Phone Scam

This short video, little over four minutes, discusses a recent scam call I received from individuals claiming to be Amazon. They were not of course. There are only two ways Amazon will contact customers: through email and through a customer generated request for Amazon to call them. If anyone receives one of the scam calls contact Amazon and make them aware of it. During that process they will check your account for any suspicious activity.

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Change Log keegan.wiki August 29, 2020-November 6, 2020

keegan.wiki Document Archive has grown more than I thought it would in the six years since I created it. Hopefully, I will not run out of ideas and it will continue to do so.


Having problem with lecture link displaying properly in some of the navigation menus. I do not know why nor do I understand how to fix it.

I still do not understand why the link displayed incorrectly and the only way I can fix it was to insert a line break tag in some of the places where it wasn’t displaying properly and in the others have decided to live with it for the time being.

Added a link to the Watergate Lecture on YouTube. Additionally, deleted unneeded file in the CSS folder

Corrected minor typo in title of 1950s Video Page.

Created new video directory. Additionally, updated the menu of all three site templates. Added the following pages: Industrial Revolution, Northern Renaissance and Scientific Revolution, and Watergate Lecture.

Completed lectures index page and lecture pages. Additionally, updated Watergate presentation link and updated Watergate navigation menu with lecture link. Finally, updated all pages in 1950s unit with link to lectures in the navigation menu.

All site navigation menus have been updated with lecture link.